Hey! Can’t really believe it has been so long since my last post! Shame on me! Nevertheless, I’m back and ready to finish the navigation bar, as promised. Can’t let this year pass without finishing what I’ve started, right?! So… here we go!
The drop-down menu needs to appear, so we need to create it. That’s simple! Inside the Portfolio button we’ll add a new <nav> tag which will contain the second menu, made up of an unordered list and three list items, which means that our drop-down menu will have three buttons.
Each element will receive its own id and/or class, as follows: the second <nav> – id="second-nav", the <ul> – id="second-ul", each <li> – class="second-btn". There will be something different about the drop-down menu. We’ll change the orientation of the arrows so that instead of pointing to the right, they will point to the left. To do so, the tip of the arrow will come first in our structure, and its tail will follow. Everything should look like this:
The rest is the same as the main navigation bar. The CSS part, I mean. We need to shape the buttons, position them, color them and that’s it! Here’s the CSS code:
Hope to see you back here in the new year to come! Cheers!
Aaaaand, I’m back! In today’s lesson we’ll be making a simple drop-down navigation bar.
To start with, a drop-down menu is just a normal menu, an unordered list with its list items, which contains another (one or more) unordered list within one of its list items, visible only on mouse-over.
We’ll begin by creating an ordinary unordered list inside a <nav> tag.
Inside the Portfolio list item we’ll insert another unordered list which will contain our drop-down menu.
I’ll give the main unordered list an id="main-ul" and to the second one, an id="second-ul" so that we can easily identify them. The buttons from the main navigation will get a class="main-button", and the ones from the drop-down list will get a class="dp-button". As usual, we’ll remove the bullets from the lists, the text-decoration from the links and so on; you know the drill.
Let’s leave the HTML part for now and go to our CSS file to edit what we have made so far. Let’s style the navigation bar, the unordered list and the buttons.
Next, we’ll give position: relative; to the two lists, while the <nav> element receives position: absolute; so we can place it wherever we want or need. The buttons, mainly the list items, will be 110px wide and have a height of 30px. We’ll give them some color too, so we can see them. More so, we’ll center the text, both vertically and horizontally. In order to obtain a horizontal nav bar, the buttons from the main list will receive float: left;. We also have to make the link cover the entire button, not just the text, so we’ll make the <a> element to be as wide as the button and we’ll give it the same height.
While we’re still here, let’s set a simple hover effect for the buttons and after that, we’ll take a look to see how our navigation bar is so far.
Now that everything is set, we need to hide the second menu and to make it appear only when the cursor is over the Portfolio button. To do so, the second unordered list needs to be given a height equal to zero and, for it to disappear, the overflow: hidden; declaration must be stated.
The last step is simple. On mouse-over, when the cursor will hover the Portfolio button, the second unordered list will increase its height to 120px, in order to show its four elements (30px * 4 = 120px).
For the moment, this will be the last example with just a hover effect that I will show and further on, in my next lessons, I will start to present what steps need to be taken in order to create a drop-down or slide-down navigation bar.
Once again, to make it easier for us, we will use the same structure from our first lesson – Another hover effect (1), and from there we will begin with the CSS code. Our example for today looks like this:
Like in our previous lesson, I have already prepared everything we need inside our CSS file – with very few changes, so that we only need to edit the sliding elements.
We can see that there are two sliding elements which appear and start to move from the button’s center and that they change their position towards its extremities, where they also stop. As usual, I will choose different background colors for the sliding elements, in order to easily identify them: magenta for the one on the left side, cyan for the one on the right side.
Of course, we need to declare position: absolute; so that we can overlap them, and then we need to place each of them in the right spot, meaning the button’s center.
The .slide-tl (slide-to-left) and .slide-tr (slide-to-right) classes will each get 50px, the first one to the left, the second one to the right. Since we are already here, let’s declare transition: all 0.6s; so that we can see them how they move on mouse-over.
Now, what we want on mouse-over is that the sliding elements move on their assigned trajectories. The first one to move to the left by 50px – meaning left: 0;, and the second one to move to the right by 50px – meaning right: 0;.
Next, we will hide the sliding elements in their starting position and, during the transition, we will make them appear, we will make them visible. To do this, we need to set the opacity declaration to be zero, in the starting position, and it to be 1 in the final position.
Now, all that is left to get to the final result, is to set the tiny details, such as a background color for the sliding elements and the hover effect for the button:
As I said, I intend to modify the same menu and, to do so, I want to delete everything in the CSS file so that I can start from scratch. As far as the HTML structure’s concerned, I’ll keep the unordered list and its elements and also the link element.
In this lesson I’ll present the steps that need to be taken in order to build this type of hover effect, as well as what elements make up this menu.
As we can see, there are four elements which make up the entire button:
1. the button itself, where we’ll use a <div> element;
2. the text on top of the button, represented by a <span> element;
3. the element which slides from the left side and –
4. the element which slides from the right side, both <div> elements.
The order in which the four elements will appear in the HTML structure is very important because we’ll apply the position declaration within the CSS code, in order to overlap them.
We can see that the button is first, the text comes on top of it, and the two sliding elements are positioned right between the two. In this case, the HTML structure will look like:
In case you have doubts regarding how correct the HTML structure is, you can copy it and validate it using an HTML Validator; the result, when the source code is well structured, will look like:
Now that we are done with the structure, it’s time to start writing the CSS. First of all, I’ll prepare the sheet so that everything will be ready for us to start editing the four elements.
Next, I propose that we start with every element, separately. I wish the list to contain the rest of its element inside, so it will receive position: relative;. For everything to be visible, I’ll set the margin for the unordered list to be as follows – margin: 20px 150px; (even if this means that the top and bottom have 20px, and the left and right have 150px).
The <a> element will also receive the position: relative; declaration because we want it to stay separate and not overlap with the others, but also to make it contain the elements it has inside it. More that this, the display: block; declaration is absolutely necessary so that we can edit it.
Now we move on to the base of the button, which we’ll set to have width: 110px; and height: 30px;. To make it visible, I’ll set the background to be red.
Our next step is to overlap the two elements: the text to appear on top of the actual button. To do this, the element which contains the text, in our case the <span> element, will receive the position: absolute; declaration. To center it, so that it will appear in the middle of the button, we’ll give it a text-align: center; declaration – after we’ve made it have the width and height of the button, 110px and 30px – and for it to be vertically centered, the line-height declaration needs to have the same value as the height of the button.
So far we’ve edited two out of the four elements. Next, we’ll edit the two sliding elements, the one which slides from left-to-right, and the one which slides from right-to-left. To make them visible, we’ll set the width and height, different background colors to distinguish them – green for the one on the left, blue for the one in the right. And if we’re still doing this, let’s overlap them – make them appear on top of the button itself, yet underneath the text, and position them as follows: green to the left, blue to the right.
Everything looks good, everything seems to be in place. Let’s animate the two sliding elements. We’ll also declare the length of the transition time to be 0.3s, in order to see exactly how the two elements act.
Now, all the elements are overlapped this way:
Apart from the colors, it doesn’t quite look like the one shown earlier. We still have something more to do. If we look closer at the example, we can see that the sliding elements start by having the same height as the button, but during transition, they get thinner and slide towards the center (vertically) of the button.
To do this, we’ll have to set up the two elements like this: during transition they need to loose height – let’s say that 10px are enough – and, at the same time, with the same value – 5px on top and 5px to the bottom – to center them vertically.
The last thing we need to do now, beside choosing the colors of the button, text and sliding elements, is to set a 110pxwidth for the unordered list – same as the buttons’ – and to hide everything else by applying a overflow: hidden; declaration.
The navigation bar is ready now. The only thing left to do is to modify the colors according to our preferences or the design and layout of the webpage.
In my next lessons I’ll make two new different hover effects, using the same structure we’ve created now. See you soon!